Monthly ，Founded in 1964
Resume Publication in 1980
With the increasing demands for the Li-ion batteries with high energy and power density， high safety， and long cycle life， the development of high-performance materials through proper structure design and surface functionalization is of great importance. To realize the high performance of materials for Li-ion batteries， advanced processing methods with high efficiency， low cost and simplicity are quite necessary， especially for material synthesis and surface modification. As a simple， fast， high efficiency， and eco-friendly processing technology in the synthesis of nanomaterials， low temperature plasma has been widely explored in the development of materials in Li-ion batteries during recent years and shown great potential for practical applications. This paper reviews the basic principle and common technologies of low temperature plasma， as well as the progress of the applications of plasma in the Li-ion batteries. The applications of low temperature plasma for the material synthesis and surface modification of the essential components of Li-ion batteries， including anodes， cathodes， separators and solid-state electrolytes， are mainly focused on. For the material synthesis， plasma can accelerate the crystal growth， reduce the reaction temperature， and obtain uniform nanostructure by avoiding agglomeration during the growth of particles. Assisting deposition of films and making dense solid-state electrolytes with less contamination are also the merits of low temperature plasma in material synthesis. For the surface modification， plasma can improve the surface properties by in situ coating， etching， and doping with proper atmosphere and functionalize the surface by graft polymerization and the formation of radicals or functional groups. At the same time， surface cleanliness， polarity and wettability can also be changed by plasma processing. These unique characteristics of plasma and the advantages on the applications for Li-ion batteries are thoroughly discussed in this review. In addition， the challenges and directions for future research of the plasma are also prospected.
Lithium-sulfur（Li-S） battery is a promising next-generation energy storage system with ultrahigh energy density. However， the intrinsic “solid-liquid-solid” sluggish reaction causes unexpected shuttling of polysulfides， severely limiting the energy density and cycling performance. How to accelerate the reversible sulfur redox reaction has become the key to realize the breakthrough in the practical use of Li-S battery. Recently， the catalysis process has been introduced into Li-S battery. The introduction of high-efficiency catalysts into Li-S battery can reduce the energy barrier of sulfur conversion， and accelerate the "solid-liquid-solid" reaction. Thus， the shuttling of polysulfides can be reduced with a much lower electrolyte usage， further impro-ving the overall performance of Li-S battery. Herein， the research progress of high-efficiency catalysts in Li-S battery is systematically summarized and in?situ characterization techniques are proposed as significant strategy to illustrate the catalytic mechanism in Li-S battery. Moreover， comprehensive perspectives are given to guide the further research and development of Li-S battery.
Semiconductor photocatalytic technology has realized the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy， aiming to solve the increasingly serious energy and environmental problems and achieve sustainable energy utilization. Nano-sized catalysts show greater potential than bulk materials due to large specific surface areas and more surface defects. At present， tin oxide（Sn3O4） nanomaterials have attracted attention due to the ecofriendly and earth-abundant features. Meanwhile， Sn3O4 has the suitable band gap（2.5—2.8 eV） and is a new type of visible light photocatalyst with great potential. This article reviews the latest research progress of Sn3O4-based photocatalytic nanomaterials， and comprehensively expounds the material modification and application， which is conducive to the future development of new and efficient Sn3O4-based nanomaterials.
Rechargeable magnesium batteries（RMBs） are a promising candidate for the development of high-energy storage systems due to its superiorities of relatively high theoretical volumetric capacity， high crustal abundance， low cost， especially environmental friendliness and safety. It is worth noting that the formation of a passivation film on the surface of magnesium（Mg） anode in most conventional electrolytes is an enormous obstacle， which leads to irreversible deposition/stripping behavior of Mg and thus limits the implementation of commercial RMBs. Researches focusing on electrolytes to tackle the obstacle have been in the bottleneck due to the restrictions of expensive price， complex synthesize process， low ionic conductivity， poor compatibility with cathodes and anodes simultaneously， etc. Facilitating modification of anode coming back to conventional electrolytes in RMBs is an alternatively promising avenue. This review summarizes recent studies concerning anode modification including alloy anode materials and formation of artificial interphase. Based on the analysis and comparison of previous researches， we propose conclusion and perspective for further development of RMBs.
Hydrogen energy is a green and efficient secondary energy source. With the help of cheap non-precious metal catalysts， electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen has attracted widespread attention because of its low cost and high efficiency. The transition metal phosphide can expose more coordinated unsaturated surface atoms due to its unique nearly spherical triangular prism unit structure， so it exhibits excellent catalytic activity， strong corrosion resistance and high efficiency in the production of hydrogen from electrolyzed water. This article mainly reviews the preparation methods of transition metal phosphides and their application and performance improvement in electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Finally， some problems that need to be solved in transition metal phosphide catalysts are discussed， which is beneficial to the development of other non-noble metal electrolyzed hydrogen production catalysts.
Hollow multishell structures（HoMSs） are considered to be a promising material in electromagnetic field due to its ordered porous shells and independent and interconnected cavities separated by shells. In this paper， the unique advantages of HoMSs in the field of electromagnetic wave are elaborated in detail from three aspects： electromagnetic wave capture， transmission and energy conversion. At the same time， the influence of shell number， shell thickness， shell spacing， shell composition and other structural parameters on the transmission and utilization of electromagnetic wave is analyzed， and the development trend of HoMSs in the field of electromagnetic wave is predicted， which provides the direction for the efficient utilization of electromagnetic wave.
In the next few decades， one of the biggest challenges we face is to find green， clean resources and materials to maintain high efficient social economy growth. The development of sustainable resources and materials is the most promising solution to reduce the proportion of traditional fossil energy and materials. Cellulose is a sustainable， renewable， abundant， cost-effective natural polymer， which has extensive applications in many fields， and can be processing into various configurations， including aerogel， foam， sponge， film and so on. This review introduces the application of the functional membranes that assembled from different forms of cellulose and its derivatives in energy and environment. There are reviews for the latest progress and preparation schemes of micro/nanocellulose and its derivatives in advanced high-performance functional energy storage devices， as well as their applications in membrane separation technologies for water treatment. Then， it focuses on the roles of micro/nanocellulose and its derivative functional membranes in batteries， capacitors， water treatment， etc.， such as separator， flexible electrode membranes， separation membranes and so on. Furthermore， the functional films of cellulose and its derivatives are summarized and prospected.
Selective hydrogenation of CO2 not only mitigates the anthropogenic CO2 emission but also produces various carbon compounds that can be used as platform molecules for producing the value-added chemicals and fuels. However， due to the extreme inertness of CO2， the high C—C coupling barrier and the many competing reactions， it is of vital importance to develop the effective nanocatalysts for achieving the activation and transformation of CO2 into diverse products. Recently， In2O3 based nanocatalysts have aroused great interest in CO2 hydrogenation due to their low cost and abundant oxygen vacancies as active sites to adsorb and activate both CO2 and H2. Moreover， by modulating In2O3 with different components， the possible products could be tuned from C1 to C2+ products. To better understand the reaction mechanism and design the potential high-performance nanocatalysts， it is necessary to summarize the recent progress in In2O3 based nanocatalysts for CO2 hydrogenation. In this review， we first summarize the fabrication of different crystal-phase In2O3 samplesand their derivative composites with metal oxides or metal nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of CO2 into C1 products. Then， we discuss the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into diverse C2+ products by In2O3 combined with different zeolites. Finally， we propose the emergent challenges and future developments of selective hydrogenation of CO2 over In2O3 based nanocatalysts. We hope that this review will provide some insights for designing novel In2O3 based nanocatalysts to achieve the hydrogenation of CO2 into the target pro-ducts with high activity， excellent selectivity， and good stability.
Silicon（Si） holds great promise for lithium ion battery anodes. The significant challenges on Si anodes are the adverse effect of large volume changes upon lithiation and delithiation. This review describes the attractive advantages of the binders in solving the volume effect of Si anodes， and discusses the recent development and multi-functional trends of Si-based binders， eventually summarizes the research progress of the binders in improving the electrochemical performances of Si anodes. Finally， we look forward to new ideas and new directions for the development of binders for Si anode in the future.
Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a new family of semiconducting materials in the applications of highly efficient light-emitting diodes（LEDs）. However， the efficient and stable metal halide perovskite LED could be achieved only if the low photoluminescent（PL） efficiency and instability issues of metal halide perovskite materials are addressed. In order to increase the exciton binding energy of the metal halide perovskite as an emitting layer in the LED， the fabrication of nano-sized perovskite is an effective way， which can increase the exciton binding energy by reducing the size or dimension， thus increasing photoluminescent efficiency. Though the perovskite-based LEDs in the green and red light spectral range have demonstrated high brightness and good efficiency， the highest external quantum efficiencies（EQEs） of which are even exceeding 20%， their stability still cannot satisfy the requirements of practical applications. More importantly， the performance of blue metal halide perovskite LED is still limited by the low light emission efficiency of present metal halide perovskites. Therefore， the fabrication of highly efficient and stable perovskite LEDs， especially the blue perovskite LED， is the most challenging issue for realizing the practical application of perovskite LEDs. In this review， we have summarized the strategies to synthesize the perovskite emitter layers and reviewed the research progress of metal halide perovskite LEDs. We also discussed the causes of instability of metal halide perovskite LED， and finally we present insight toward future research directions and an outlook to further improve EQEs and stabilities of perovskite LEDs aiming to practical applications.
Nowadays， with the rapid development of electrochemical energy storage market， the present commercial lithium ion batteries cannot meet the growing demand for energy storage devices with higher energy density. Metallic lithium is strongly regarded as the most promising anode candidate for next-generation high-energy-density batteries， due to its superior theoretical capacity and low electrochemical potential. However， there are still several determent issues to be addressed during charging and discharging， including huge volume change， lithium dendrite growth and unstable interface， which seriously hinder its practical application in secondary batteries. Three-dimensional（3D） porous matrixes are considered as ideal current collectors to realize a uniform Li nucleation and dendrite-free Li plating as well as to overcome volume expansion simultaneously. 3D current collectors possess spacial framework， large surface area， abundant pores and high mechanical properties， which enable a lower local current density， uniform electric field distribution and reduced concentration gradient for lithium anode during Li plating/stripping. Although many research papers related to 3D current collectors have been published recently， few comprehensive and systemic evaluation was revealed on the currently various 3D current collector systems. This review focuses on the research progress referring to structure design and practical application of 3D current collectors in lithium anode. Firstly， an analysis about the principle and limitation of lithium dendrite suppression by 3D current collector is provided. Secondly， we pay close attention to strategies for controllable construction， surface modification and functio-nality of a 3D structure and resulting improvement of Li deposition. A comparison among various 3D hosts based on different materials is summarized， in terms of advantages and shortages. Finally， perspectives of the future research based on the practical application in this field are discussed.
This review introduces several kinds of graphdiyne-based nanomaterials with different structures， including nanowalls， nanoflowers， nanosheets and so on. The application of graphdiyne-based materials with different nanostructures in electrochemical energy storage devices and electrochemical catalysis as well as their energy storage mechanism are discussed. The challenges faced by graphdiyne-based nanomaterials and the significance of design and controllable synthesis of special nanostructures in the fast-growing field of energy application are also discussed.
With the exhaustion of traditional energy resources and the emergence of environmental problems， lithium ion battery has gradually become a widely used energy storage system due to its higher volume/weight energy density， longer service life， lower self-discharge rate and other advantages. Compared with the traditional cathode such as LiCoO2， LiFePO4etc， Nickel-rich layered cathode Li［Ni1-x-yCoxMny］O2（NCM） has become the most preferred cathode materials for due to its advantages of high voltage and high capacity. Although NCM cathode material has the advantages mentioned above， it still faces the problems of cycle stability， rate capability and safety issues before further practical application. These performance deficiencies come from the unstable crystal structure of the NCM material， the side reaction on the positive electrode-electrolyte interface， the high interface resistance and so on. To solve these problems， a lot of work has been done to optimize the electrochemical properties of nickel-rich cathode， which is almost studied around the electrode-electrolyte interface. In this review， we summarized the degradation mechanism of capacity battery performance with NCM cathode， and the optimizing strategy of NCM cathode. And then， main coating strategies including electrochemical inactive coating， li-reactive coating， lithium-ion conductive coating are discussed. On this basis， we summarized the ideas and effects of various surface coating strategies， and finally proposed the prospect about the development of NCM cathode materials.
Secondary lithium-ion battery（LIB） plays an important role in our daily life， however， state-of- the-art LIBs cannot meet the high-energy-density demand of electric vehicles and large-scale gird， developing high-capacity electrode materials is a must. Recently， Si anode has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity， low electrochemical potential， and abundance in the earth’s crust， but the large volume change（ca. 300%） during cycling and low initial Coulombic efficiency（ICE） severely hinder its practical applications. Prelithiation as a promising strategy has been proven effective to improve the ICE for high- performance Si-based anodes. This review focuses on demonstrating the scientific significance of prelithiation， systemically introducing various methods of prelithiation by recent advances and analyzing their own advan- tages and disadvantages， and finally proposing the challenges and prospects of the prelithiation of Si-based anodes.
Graphite has been widely used as the commercial anode of secondary ion batteries. Its current specific capacity nearly reaches to its theoretical value， which cannot satisfy the requirements of high-performance batteries. The anodes with high specific capacity， such as the metal in IA group as well as the elements in IVA or VA group， have attracted enormous attention， but the poor cycle performance and safety issues restrict their practical application. As a result， the framework-design strategy has been put forward. Carbon materials are the promising frameworks for the high specific capacity anodes of secondary ion batteries because of their extensive sources and adjustable properties. This paper reviews the applications of carbon frameworks in silicon-， phosphorus-， germanium- and tin-based anodes as well as Li and Na metal anodes from the aspects of pore structure， specific surface area， electronic conductivity， ion conductivity， heteroatom doping and interface modification， and puts forward the outlook for the development of carbon supports.
The emergent Li-containing alloys（LixMy， M refers to metal or nonmetal element that can react with Li to form alloys） is a class of promising electrode materials for next-generation high energy lithium-ion batteries. They deliver high theoretical specific capacities that are several times that of current graphite and can act as active lithium suppliers that are different from traditional lithium-free alloy anodes（Si， Sn， P， etc.）. The LixMy anodes can pare with high-capacity Li-free cathodes（such as Sulfur， O2， FeF3， V2O5， etc.） to develop a new full battery system. In this paper， researches on Li-containing alloy-based high-capacity anodes LixMy（e.g.， Li4.4Si， Li4.4Sn， Li3P， Li2.25Al， etc.） were reviewed. Scientific challenges and technical difficulties of LixMy anodes were systematically analyzed and discussed. Various methods for materials synthesis and electrodes fabrication were summarized. Furthermore， various full-cell configurations based on LixMy anodes were introduced， including Li-ion batteries（LIBs）， Li-ion-sulfur batteries（LISBs）， and Li-ion-oxygen batte-ries（LIOBs）. Moreover， research strategies and achievements on addressing the challenges of LixMy anodes and improving their performance were discussed， including composition adjustment， surface coating， material composite， electrode treatment， and electrolyte engineering， etc. Also， perspectives and new insights for the future development of LixMy anodes are proposed.
With the rapid development of electric vehicles and portable electronic products， high-energy- density rechargeable batteries have been strongly considered. Owing to its ultra-high theoretical capacity and low reduction potential， lithium（Li） metal is strongly regarded as one of the promising anodes for the next- generation secondary batteries. However， the formation of Li dendrites and volume expansion of Li limit the practical applications of Li metal anode. Introducing three-dimensional（3D） host in Li anode can regulate behavior of Li plating/stripping and alleviate volume expansion. The lithiophilic host can reduce the nucleation overpotential of Li， induce uniform Li nucleation， and effectively regulate the Li deposition behavior. In this review， the research progress of lithiophilic host in Li metal anode is summarized. The lithiophilic host is classified according to the different lithiophilic materials. The effect of lithiophilic host on inhibiting the growth of lithium dendrites and improving the performance of batteries is summarized， and the future research and deve-lopment are prospected.
An ordered mesoporous cadmium sulfide（CdS） photocatalyst has been synthesized through the nanocasting method using ordered mesoporous silica as hard template. The resultant ordered mesoporous CdS photocatalyst is constructed with gyroid ultrathin frameworks of ca. 5 nm and possesses a large specific surface area of 238 m2/g， which could efficiently reduce the migration distance of photo-generated charges from bulk to surface in photocatalysis and provide more active sites for photocatalytic reaction， thus resulting an enhanced photocatalytic performance. Furthermore， nickel sulfide as a cocatalyst was loaded on the surface of ordered mesoporous CdS by the in?situ chemical deposition， resulting in a series of ordered mesoporous NiS-loaded CdS nanocomposite photocatalysts. Their photocatalytic performances for H2 production in water were evalua-ted under visible light irradiation（λ≥420 nm） and a high photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 3.84 mmol?h-1?g-1 could be reached after loading an optimal amount of NiS， which is 17.5 times that（0.22 mmol?h-1?g-1） for commercial CdS after loading the same amount of NiS.
Ultrasmall particle sizes and excellent dispersity of the MoO3 active species on support majorly dominate their catalytic performances. Herein， a series of ordered mesoporous carbon support ultrasmall molybdena nanoparticles（OMC-US-MoO3） composites was synthesized through an in situ confinement growth strategy. Ordered mesoporous carbon was used as the matrix to in situ confine the growth of MoO3 nanocrystals. The obtained MoO3 nanocrystals show ultrasmall particle sizes（<5 nm） and excellent dispersity on the meso- porous carbon frameworks. The obtained OMC-US-MoO3 exhibits tunable specific surface areas（428―796 m2/g）， pore volumes（0.27―0.62 cm3/g）， MoO3 contents（4%―27%， mass fraction） and uniform pore sizes（4.6―5.7 nm）. As a typical example， the obtained sample with 7% MoO3（denoted as OMC-US-MoO3-7） shows the largest pore size， smallest thickness of pore wall and most regular mesostructures. When being used as a catalyst， the OMC-US-MoO3-7 exhibits an excellent catalytic activity for selective oxidation of cyclooctene with a high stability.
The finite element simulation of lithium phosphorus oxynitride（LiPON）-based all-solid-state lithium batteries is performed based on COMSOL Multiphysics which is a Multiphysics simulation platform. Utilizing the interfaces of tertiary current distribution， dilute substance transfer， solid heat transfer and solid mechanics， the coupling of multiple physical fields in the solid-state battery system is realized. At the same time， the electrochemical performance simulation for the all-solid-state lithium battery itself under given physical parameters is also completed. In this model， the thermal management and stress distribution of the battery during operation are effectively calculated. The deposition data on the lithium anode surface was used to analyze the possible causes of lithium dendrite growth. The results showed that the capacity decay of an all-solid lithium batteries and the safety management out of control such as dendrite growth are not just the result of single factor control. The system’s concentration gradient， pre-stress distribution of stress， the speed-control step of heat and mass transfer processes and volume change during the charge and discharge process will all have different effects on battery performance and safety management.
Rechargeable hydrogen gas batteries as a category of emerging battery system show promising electrochemical performance for large-scale energy storage applications. As a large group of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries， lithium intercalation compounds can be adopted as excellent cathodes for the rechargeable hydrogen gas batteries. In this work， two lithium intercalation compounds-H2 batteries were studied using LiCoO2（LCO） and LiFePO4（LFP） as cathodes in combination with hydrogen gas anode in a Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte， naming LCO-H2 and LFP-H2 batteries， respectively. The LCO-H2 battery shows a high discharge potential of ca. 1.27 V with a capacity of ca. 97 mA·h·g-1， and a good rate of 10C. In addition， the LFP-H2 battery shows a discharge potential of ca. 0.66 V with a capacity of ca. 125 mA·h·g-1， and a good rate of 10C. Although the LCO-H2 and LFP-H2 batteries show capacity decay due to the intrinsic instability of the untreated lithium intercalation compound cathodes， both of the two batteries exhibit excellent recoverable capacities by recycling the hydrogen gas anode， demonstrating the robustness of the hydrogen gas battery chemistry for future long lifetime batteries with potentials for grid-scale energy storage.