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    Progress on the Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides
    CAO Shujie, LI Hongjun, GUAN Wenli, REN Mengtian, ZHOU Chuanzheng
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220304-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220304
    Abstract689)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (3881KB)(323)       Save

    Phosphorothioate(PS) oligonucleotides have found a wide range of applications in biochemical mechanism studies, biomedicine, materials and related fields. The stereo configuration of PS has a remarkable effect on the biochemical properties of PS nucleic acids, which has aroused wide interest in developing methods for efficient and stereoselective synthesis of PS oligonucleotides in the past 30 years. This review summarized the methods for stereocontrolled synthesis of PS oligonucleotides, with a focus on the research progress in the past decade. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods were comparatively analyzed. Finally, the prospect of stereocontrolled synthesis of PS oligonucleotides was briefly discussed.

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    Progress on the Recognition, Complex Structure and Intracellular Detection of Nucleic Acid G-quadruplex
    LIU Wenting, LIU Liuyi, ZHU Bochen, MAO Zongwan
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220419-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220419
    Abstract515)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (7527KB)(170)       Save

    DNA or RNA guanine-rich sequences can form non-canonical secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. The structures of G-quadruplex are rich and diverse, and they exist dynamically in organisms. G-quadruplex is involved in key genomic functions such as transcription, replication, genomic stability and epigenetic regulation and is closely related to cancer biology. The studies on the structural and functional mechanisms of G-quadruplex have promoted G-quadruplex-targeted tumor intervention and treatment. This paper reviews the specific recognition, cell detection and biological functional regulation of G-quadruplex, summarizes the research progress in designing small molecules recognizing and targeting of G-quadruplex and their complex structures. The possibility of G-quadruplex-targeted intervention and disease treatment is discussed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in the future research of G-quadruplex field are prospected.

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    Non-viral Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing
    SHENG Jinhan, ZHENG Qizhen, WANG Ming
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220344-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220344
    Abstract510)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (15406KB)(158)       Save

    Genome editing based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats(CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9(CRISPR/Cas9) system provides an efficient and rapid tool for precise control and regulation of mammalian cell genome. Its chemical biology and biomedical application is however challenged by the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool that composed of Cas9 protein and gRNA into mammalian cells. In recent years, a large variety of non-viral delivery vectors have been designed for CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing delivery in the form of DNA, messenger RNA(mRNA) and ribonucleoprotein complex(RNP). In this article, we summarize the most recent progress of non-viral CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool, and the application prospect of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in chemical biology.

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    Hydrogel-based Bioinspired Ion Channels: Fabrication and Controllable Ion Transport
    CHEN Weipeng, KONG Xiangyu, WEN Liping
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (6): 20220772-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220772
    Abstract507)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (14959KB)(629)       Save

    The controllable ion transport is the basis of most physiological activities, such as the transmission of neural signals, the perception of external stimuli, etc. The key to realize the controllable ion transport is the various protein ion channels in life system. Inspiring researchers endeavor to develop artificial ion channels to subtly tune the ion transportation. Among the developed ion channels, hydrogel-based system exhibits the advantages of high ion selectivity and high ion conductance due to its three-dimensional(3D) charged networks induced space charges and 3D interconnection channels. As hydrogel-based ion channels hold the biocompatibility, deformability, and stable ion storage properties, it has been the focus in intelligence ion transport field and shows great potential in ion electronic circuits, medical health, energy conversion and storage, resources, and environment. To summarize the latest development of the hydrogel-based ion channels, we firstly overview on the construction methods of hydrogel-based intelligent ion channels. Thereafter, the ion transport mechanisms in the hydrogel-based ion channels are summarized, and the applications of such ion channels are categorized. At last, we discuss the existed issues and give the perspective on future development of hydrogel-based ion channels.

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    Effects of Exogenous N6-methyladenosine Incorporation on the Expression of Cellular mRNA Transcripts
    ZHANG Qingyi, CAO Jie, SHU Xiao, LIU Jianzhao
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220173-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220173
    Abstract489)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (2737KB)(173)       Save

    N6-methyladenosine(m6A) is the most prevalent and reversible internal mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells, and plays an essential role in RNA fate determination. In this work, we studied the exogenous incorporation of m6A into cellular mRNA through salvage pathway and evaluated its resultant biological effects. First, we found that feeding of HeLa cells with m6A nucleoside significantly altered cell morphology and viability. We then synthesized isotope-labelled d3-m6A(N6-methyl-d3-adenosine) and examined the d3-m6A incorporation rate in cellular mRNA along with incubation time using mass spectrometry. Next, RNA sequencing(RNA-seq) was used to study the biological effects of exogenous m6A incorporation. Finally, thousands of genes were found to be differentially expressed, and were dramatically enriched in pathways such as ribosome biogenesis, mRNA metabolic process and cell morphogenesis differentiation. All these results suggested that exogenous m6A could be incorporated into mRNAs through a metabolic pathway to influence cellular gene expression.

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    Sequencing Methods for Detection of Nucleic Acid Epigenetic Modifications
    FANG Xin, ZHAO Ruiqi, MO Jing, WANG Yafen, WENG Xiaocheng
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220342-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220342
    Abstract472)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (9770KB)(161)       Save

    All the somatic cells in an organism share the same genetic information, but have different RNA expression subsets. Only part of genes are expressed and perform their functions at a specific time. In recent years, breakthroughs in epigenetic research have helped people understand the regulation of gene expression to a certain extent. Three types of biological macromolecules: DNA, RNA, and protein, are chemically modified after synthesis. These modifications involve the regulation of almost all biological processes. So far, researchers have identified more than 17 and 160 chemical modifications in DNA and RNA, respectively. The interest in various biological functions of DNA and RNA modifications has promoted the development of the frontier fields of epigenomics and epigenomics. Developing chemical and biological tools to detect specific modifications in the genome or transcriptome is an issue of great concern to us, and it is also a key to the research of epigenomics and epitranscriptomics. Herein, we summarize the detection methods of nucleic acid modifications, and put forward some bottlenecks in the existing technologies and possible innovative methods.

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    Applications of Nanopore Sequencing Technology in the Detection of Nucleic Acid Modifications
    CHEN Jialu, HUANG Shuo
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220333-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220333
    Abstract464)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (6161KB)(181)       Save

    A wide variety of chemical modifications have been found in DNA and RNA. These nucleic acid modifications play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression, affect biological processes such as growth and development, and cause diseases including cancer. Accurate identification and localization of nucleic acid modifications can help to understand their functional mechanism, and contributes to diagnosis and treatment of relevant diseases. Nanopore sequencing is an emerging single-molecule sequencing technology and can directly detect nucleic acid modifications. It can simultaneously detect multiple modifications based on the difference in pore blockage signals between modified and canonical bases. This review briefly summarizes the principle and recent development of nanopore sequencing, computer algorithms for nucleic acid modification identification and applications of nanopore sequencing. By the end of this review, prospects of future development of nanopore sequencing is also proposed.

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    In-solution Selection Methods of DNA-encoded Library
    WANG Yingying, LI Xiaomin, CAI Yahui, LI Xiaoyu, SHI Bingbing
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220438-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220438
    Abstract447)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2193KB)(142)       Save

    DNA-encoded library(DEL) has become a nearly indispensable technology platform for the development of new drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. The DEL technology has become matured over the past three decades and the rapid development of DEL-compatible chemistries has tremendously improved the chemical diversity of DELs and promoted its application in drug discovery. DEL technology has been widely adopted by pharmaceutical companies, and numerous clinical candidates have been identified from DEL selection. Usually, the selection of DEL is mainly affinity-based selection on solid-phase. The purified target protein is immobilized on the matrix, and then the binders are separated from non-binders by physical washes. In recent years, a series of in-solution selection methods for DEL have been developed, which has further expanded the target scope suitable for DEL and revealing the potential of DEL as an effective tool to explore fundamental biology. This review mainly introduces the selection methods of DEL in-solution phase and their applications, and finally gives a brief outlook on the application of DEL technology to complex biological targets and functional selection.

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    Effect of Water Flooding at Different Positions of Cathode Side on the Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
    CHEN Yafeng, ZENG Liuli, GUO Wei
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (6): 20230003-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20230003
    Abstract416)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1452KB)(178)       Save

    The discharge of the water generated by the cathode of the fuel cell is mainly related to the catalytic layer, carbon paper, microporous layer and flow channel. The accumulation of generated water in these four parts will cause flooding. However, it is difficult to distinguish which part of the water flooding is caused by the accumulation during the operation of the fuel cell. In this paper, hydrophilic and hydrophobic treatment was carried out on different parts of the cathode side(catalytic layer, carbon paper, microporous layer, flow passage) to obtain local flooding in different parts. Then, the flooding situation of fuel cells was analyzed under different stoich, humidity, back pressure and other conditions. The test results show that with the decrease of stoich, the performance of the battery without hydrophobic treatment in carbon paper is the most serious decline, and the impedance arc radius of the battery is increased by 1.5 times. When the cathode was humidified at 10%, the performance of the cells without hydrophobic treatment in carbon paper and flow passage was poor, and the impedance are radius of the two cells was 50% larger than that of the cathode humidified at 60%; when the cathode is 100% humidified, the performance of the cell without hydrophobic treatment in carbon paper is the best, while that of the cell without hydrophobic treatment in the catalytic layer is the worst, and the impedance arc radius of the cell without hydrophobic treatment in the catalytic layer is twice as large as that of the cell with 10% humidification. With the decrease of back pressure, the performance of the cell without hydrophobic treatment of carbon paper decreased the most seriously, and the impedance arc radius of the cell under high back pressure was 50% smaller than that under low back compression.

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    Recent Advances in Chemical Control of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Technology
    XIAO Heng, LI Yongkui, XING Xiwen
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220410-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220410
    Abstract400)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (3798KB)(207)       Save

    As a revolutionary technology in the field of genetic engineering, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats(CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9(CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing contribute significantly to various important diseases, such as cancer, genetic diseases and infectious diseases. However, precisely spatiotemporal control of genome editing in specific cells and tissues to avoid off-target effects is still one of the major challenges for clinical translation of this technology. Recently, using chemical molecules and reactions to control the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 is becoming one of the important means to increase the gene editing efficiency. This review summarized the recent advances about chemical control of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and the future applications of these technologies in clinical medicine was proposed.

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    Electrocatalytic Oxidative Cleavage of Lignin: Facile and Efficient Biomass Valorization Strategy
    XU Jianing, BAI Wenjing, LOU Yuhan, YU Haipeng, DOU Shuo
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (5): 20220749-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220749
    Abstract390)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (5356KB)(216)       Save

    Lignin, as an intriguing native renewable aromatic polymer, can be depolymerized into aromatic platform chemicals by catalysis procedures, and its high-value conversion is of great significance for realizing the green and sustainable production of biofuels, fine chemicals, and bulk chemicals. With this regard, catalytic oxidation of lignin through electrochemistry offers an economized energy nature with tunable potential or current to determine the products selectivity and conversion rate. However, to realize the controllable degradation of lignin, the electrocatalytic system, including the catalysts, electrolyte, reaction cell, etc., should be rationally designed based on the well-understanding of the depolymerization mechanism. In this review, we focused on the bond cleavage mechanism of C—C bond and C—O bond, respectively, in the depolymerization of lignin. Research works based on the different bond cleavage mechanisms in the electrochemical oxidation of lignin and its model compounds to aromatic monomers in recent years were reviewed here, including the different types of catalytic systems, electrocatalysts, and free radical initiators. Of which the free radical intermediates play decisive role in the highly selective cleavage of C—O and C—C bonds. Finally, the challenges and development perspectives in the future of electrocatalytic lignin depolymerization are also provided.

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    Enhancement of Solubility, Stability and Permeation of Skin-care Ingredients by Amphiphilic Sulfonated Calix[8]arene
    YU Hongmei, LI Shihui, TIAN Hanwen, LIN Yilin, ZHANG Shuxin, GENG Wenchao, LI Huabin, WANG Honglei, LIU Juan, GUO Dongsheng
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (10): 20230143-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20230143
    Abstract383)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1181KB)(99)       Save

    The sulfonated calix[8]arene modified with dodecyl at the lower-rim(SC8A-12C) was synthesized to improve the solubility and stability of vitamin A(Va) in aqueous solution, and promote the percutaneous permeability of Va. Lipophilic Va is almost insoluble in water, SC8A-12C could improve solubility of Va to 1.1 mg/mL and prolong the half-life of Va in aqueous solution from 5 h to 35 h. In vitro transdermal test showed that SC8A-12C increased the transdermal amount of Va by 16.9 times. SC8A-12C also increased the solubility of various skin-care ingredients, such as phenoethylresorcinol, salicylic acid, quercetin and azelaic acid, and increased the transdermal amount of salicylic acid by 3.8 times. SC8A-12C improved the efficacy of Va through improving solubility, stability and skin permeability, and was expected to develop oil-free skin-care products of Va. In view of the SC8A-12C improving solubility of a variety of skin-care ingredients, it is expected to contribute to the development of multi-functional skin-care products.

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    Research Advances in Transport Mechanism of Lithium Ions in Solid Electrolytes
    FU Zhongheng, CHEN Xiang, YAO Nan, YU Legeng, SHEN Xin, ZHANG Rui, ZHANG Qiang
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (5): 20220703-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220703
    Abstract379)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (9332KB)(343)       Save

    Global challenges have promoted the rapid development of rechargeable lithium battery technology. Solid-state electrolytes are less flammable than liquid electrolytes. If the ion transport behavior in solid electrolytes is well understood, the lithium dynamic stability and rate performance of solid state batteries can be accurately regulated. With the rapid development of calculation technology, atomic scale simulation technology has become an important method to understand the ion transport of materials. To solve the above problems, this review firstly summarizes the common diffusion mechanisms in solid materials. Then the transport mechanism of lithium ions in solid electrolytes is introduced, and the important factors(crystal structure, electronic structure, external factors, grain boundaries) affecting the transport of lithium ions in solid electrolytes are emphatically included. Finally, the transport mechanism of lithium ion in solid electrolytes is summarized and prospected.

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    Applications of CRISPR-Cas Technologies in Microbiome Engineering
    HU Yucan, CAO Zhaohui, ZHENG Linggang, SHEN Juntao, ZHAO Wei, DAI Lei
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220362-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220362
    Abstract372)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (3834KB)(139)       Save

    Microbiome engineering aims to achieve targeted and precise manipulation of complex microbial communities. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats(CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein(CRISPR-Cas) system is an emerging powerful tool for gene editing, which provides a probability to engineering microbiome from gene to ecosystem level. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the emerging area of microbiome engineering, focusing on the applications of CRISPR-Cas technologies in genetic manipulation of microbiome. To begin with, we introduce the concept of microbiome engineering. We propose to classify microbiome engineering by: (1) manipulation at the ecological level, i. e., alterations in community composition; (2) manipulation at the genetic level, i. e., editing of metagenomes. Furthermore, manipulation of mcirobiomes at the genetic level can be achieved via different approaches: (1) genome engineering of cultured microbial isolates; (2) metgenome engineering in situ. CRISPR-Cas tools have important applications in microbiome engineering, including strain-specific deletion, transcriptome regulation, site-specific insertion in complex communities, and dissecting the contribution of a single gene in microbiome-host interaction. The complexity of microbiomes requires the development of assistive technologies, such as highly efficient delivery methods, controllable genetic regulatory elements, etc. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in microbiome engineering, an emerging research area at the intersection of synthetic biology, chemical biology and microbiome. Breakthroughs in microbiome engineering will greatly advance our understanding of microbiome and transform many fields such as human health, agriculture, and environmental protection.

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    Rapid Grafting of Phenylboronic Acid with Hydroxypropyl Chitosan Mediated by HATU
    LI Aoqi, HU Chuanzhi, SHI Han, DENG Mingyu, XIAO Bo, JIANG Bo
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (6): 20220698-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220698
    Abstract364)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (1100KB)(165)       Save

    Phenylboronic acid(PBA) can form reversible covalent bonds with cis-1,2-diol or 1,3-diol in an aqueous solution, which makes it useful as the glucose-responsive units or dynamic cross-linking groups in nano/hydrogels. In this paper, PBA was efficiently grafted on hydroxypropyl chitosan(HPCS) by employing 2-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)- NNN',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate(HATU) as a coupling reagent in dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO). The resulting carboxyphenylboronic acid-grafted hydroxypropyl chitosan(CPBA-HPCS) was soluble when pH>8.5, and the structure was characterized and confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR). In addition, the kinetics of the reaction were studied and a series of CPBA-HPCS with different substitution degrees(up to 0.78) was prepared. This novel chitosan derivative has good application prospects in the preparation of smart hydrogels and drug carriers.

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    Recent Progress in Non-fused Ring Small-molecule Acceptor Materials
    SUN Heng, ZHANG Pengyu, ZHANG Yingnan, ZHAN Chuanlang
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (7): 20230076-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20230076
    Abstract363)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (10367KB)(319)       Save

    The invention of non-fullerene acceptors with rigid and fused ring structures has pushed a rapid progress in the field of organic solar cells. The power conversion efficiencies(PCEs) have exceeded 19%. Compared with the fused ring structures, the non-fused ring acceptors have recently received increasing attention due to their relatively simple structures and synthesis. Since 2017, the molecular library of non-fused ring acceptors has extended up to more than 100 molecules and the PCEs have rapidly increased from the initial 4% to the recent 16%. In this review, we classified these molecules into fully non-fused ring acceptors and A-D-C n -D-A type non-fused ring acceptors, according to the non-fused ring backbone structural features. We correlate the molecular structures and the optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties from the aspects of non-fused ring backbone structures and side chain engineering. In particular, we focus on that the non-fused ring backbone structures, intramolecular non-covalent interactions and side chain engineering finely tune the materials’ energy levels and bandgaps and photovoltaic performance. We also give suggestions to overcome the factors that limit the increase of solar cell performance.

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    Synthesis and Deep Desulfurization Activity of Fuel Oil of PW11M@Cu3(BTC)2 Hybrid
    HAN Xu, BAI Xue, ZHANG Zhong, YANG Yanli, CUI Hong, LIU Shuxia
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (4): 20220702-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220702
    Abstract350)   HTML47)    PDF(pc) (3207KB)(341)       Save

    Transition metal monosubstituted Keggin-type tungstophosphates(PW11M, M=Ti4+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) were synthesized and supported in a Cu3(BTC)2 metal-organic framework, a series of transition metal-substituted polyoxometalate-based metal-organic framework hybrids[PW11M@Cu3(BTC)2] was obtained. The compositions, structures and porosity of the hybrids were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analysis(ICP), powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis(TG), N2 adsorption-desorption experiment, etc. The series of hybrid materials have good adsorption effect on dibenzothiophene in fuel oil, and rapidly catalyze its oxidation to dibenzothiophene sulfone, and realize deep desulfurization of fuel oil with oxygen as oxidant.

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    Applications of Gene Editing in Mitochondrial Diseases
    CHANG Liying, LING Xinyu, CHEN Heqi, WANG Xue, LIU Tao
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (3): 20220363-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20220363
    Abstract345)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (2751KB)(145)       Save

    Mitochondria, as energy factories of cells, play an important role in maintaining cell energy metabolism and human life activities. The mutations of mitochondrial genome have led to a series of mitochondrial diseases, which seriously threaten human life and health. The development of gene editing methods targeting mitochondria is of great significance for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. In recent years, a series of gene editing methods inclu-ding restriction nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, transcriptional activator like effector nuclease, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats(CRISPR) and mitochondrial base editor have been developed. This article reviewed the recent progresses, deficiencies and prospects of the applications of gene editing tools for mitochondria gene editing. We hope it could provide reference for the development of mitochondrial disease treatment.

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    Cross-linking PEDOT∶F Hole-transporting Layer to Enhance Photovoltaic Performance of Flexible Organic Solar Cells
    WEI Wanxia, ZHOU Xianmin, DONG Xinyun, LIU Tiefeng, XIE Cong, CHENG Jingyu, CHEN Jianping, LU Xin, FENG Kai, ZHOU Yinhua
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (7): 20230069-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20230069
    Abstract340)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (1855KB)(150)       Save

    Silver nanowires(AgNWs) are important printable top electrodes in flexible organic solar cells(OSCs). However, when fabricating AgNWs from ethanol solution, it could cause damage on the hole-transporting layer below due to washing out. In this work, we propose a cross-linking strategy on the hole-transporting layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)∶perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer(PEDOT∶F) to improve its alcohol resistance. By introducing a cross-linker of poly(ethylene glycol)diglycidyl ether(PEGDE), PEDOT:F was successfully cross-linked. Based on the cross-linked PEDOT∶F hole-transporting layer, small-area flexible OSCs(0.041 cm2) showed power conversion efficiency of 14.86%. Flexible organic solar module(21.18 cm2) was then fabricated and an efficiency of 12.38% was achieved.

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    Understanding the Water Structures in Deep Eutectic Solvents by Near-infrared Spectroscopy
    WANG Yan, CAI Wengsheng, SHAO Xueguang
    Chem. J. Chinese Universities    2023, 44 (6): 20230017-.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20230017
    Abstract334)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (2122KB)(208)       Save

    The hydrogen bond network structure of choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvents(DESs)-water mixtures was studied in the range of 5%—95% water content by near infrared spectroscopy. Through the analysis of the near-infrared spectra after choline chloride and urea mixing, the spectral feature of the interaction between urea —NH group and choline chloride Cl- was found, indicating that the formation of NH···Cl- was the reason for the decrease of DESs melting point. Through the near-infrared spectrum analysis of DESs-water mixtures with different water contents, the spectral information of the interaction between water molecules and between water molecules and the —NH and C=O groups in urea was found. Water mainly exists in three kinds of structures, including the bulk water, the hydrated water with urea C=O and the bridge water connect —NH groups. The bulk water destroyed NH···Cl- in DESs, reducing the stability of the system, while the bridge water between urea —NH molecules and the hydrated water with urea C=O increase the stability of the system. The relative content of the three water structures in DESs is related to the water content. The water content of 40%—80% can not only effectively reduce the viscosity of the system, but also maintain the properties of DESs.

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