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    Organic Small Molecule Nanoparticles for Phototheranostics
    SHAO Wei, LEE Jiyoung, LI Fangyuan, LING Daishun
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (11): 2356-2382.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200319
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    Cancer is a global public health issue that is severely threatening human health. Efficient diagnostic and therapeutic methods are in great demand. Photosensitizer(PS)-enabled phototheranostics that integrate diagnosis and therapy into a single platform under near-infrared(NIR) laser irradiation is superior to conventional surgery resection and chemotherapy in terms of noninvasiveness, minimal harm to normal tissues, and high spatial selectivity. With the merits of defined and easily-tuned chemical structure, good reproducibility, and excellent biocompatibility, organic small molecule dyes are promising PSs in phototheranostics as compared to their inorganic and polymeric counterparts. We herein summarize the recent advances of organic small molecules, including conventional small molecule dyes, donor-acceptor(D-A) conjugated small molecules, and aggregation-induced emission molecules(AIEgens), organic small molecule nanoparticles(OSMNs) in phototheranostics. The future challenges and perspectives of OSMNs in phototheranostics are also discussed.

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    Recent Advances on High Mobility Emissive Anthracene-derived Organic Semiconductors
    XIE Ziyi, LIU Dan, ZHANG Yihan, LIU Qingqing, DONG Huanli, HU Wenping
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1179-1193.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190650
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    High mobility emissive organic semiconductors are the important core materials for the realization of organic light-emitting transistors(OLETs). However, it remains a long-standing challenge for developing high mobility emissive organic semiconductors because of the different molecular design requirements as well as their molecular packing in solid state. Recently, significant advance has been achieved in the development of high mobility emissive organic semiconductors, especially for the anthracene-derived high mobility emissive materials, which would lead to the rapid development of this field. In this article, we first give a brief introduction for the significant progress in the whole field, and then focus on special development of high mobility emissive anthracene-derivatives(more than 20 types) along with their molecular structure design, molecular packing and optoelectronic properties as well as their applications in OLETs. Finally, the challenges, development directions and opportunities are discussed. Hopefully, this review would give a valuable guideline for the further research in this field.

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    Advances in Bacterial Detection Based on Raman Spectroscopy
    LI Wenshuai, WU Guorui, ZHANG Xijing, YUE Aiqin, DU Weijun, ZHAO Jinzhong, LIU Dingbin
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 872-883.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190684
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    Bacteria is a kind of microorganism that is closely related to human activities, and its rapid and highly sensitive detection is very important for the prevention and control of major infectious diseases. In this paper, the basic principle of Raman spectroscopy for bacterial detection is introduced, and three main methods of Raman spectroscopy for bacterial detection, including bacterial composition detection, bacterial metabolites detection and Raman probe labeling based detection mode, are reviewed and compared. Finally, the development prospect of Raman spectroscopy in the field of bacterial detection was prospected, and five suggestions were put forward.

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    Progress in Direct Synthesis of High Silica Zeolite Y
    WANG Juan, WANG Linying, ZHU Dali, CUI Wenhao, WANG Yifeng, TIAN Peng, LIU Zhongmin
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2021, 42 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200419
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    The synthesis of zeolite Y and its application in fluidized catalytic cracking could be taken as a milestone in the field of oil refining and petrochemical industry. It is well-known that the framework SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio(SAR) of zeolite Y determines its thermal/hydrothermal stability and catalytic properties. To improve the framework SAR of zeolite Y can effectively decrease acid sites density, enhance acid strength and thus ameliorate the thermal/hydrothermal stability and catalytic cracking performance. Currently, the high silica zeolite Y used in industry is prepared by complex post-synthesis treatment. Although direct synthesis is an ideal way to obtain high zeolite Y, it remains a challenging topic in the field of zeolite synthesis. Herein, we review the progress in direct synthesis of high silica zeolite Y, including the syntheses both in inorganic and organic systems. At last, we summarize the crystallization mechanism of zeolite Y.

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    Preparation and Applications of Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels
    SHENG Hui, XUE Bin, QIN Meng, WANG Wei, CAO Yi
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1194-1207.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190656
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    In this review, we focus on the design principle of stretchable and tough hydrogels as well as the applications in the fields of tissue engineering and flexible electronic devices. Through connecting hydrogel network structures, toughening mechanisms and chemical structures with macroscopic mechanical properties, we mainly discussed the research progress of single network hydrogel, double network hydrogel, nanocomposite hydrogel and so on. The summary and outlook of the new ideas and directions of stretchable and tough hydrogels were also demonstrated at last.

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    Recent Advances in Polymeric Nano-sized Carrier Systems
    ZHAO Yu, CAO Wanqing, LIU Yang
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 909-923.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190646
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    In recent years, the nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention in biomedicine owing to the great enhancement of therapeutic efficiency. A variety of polymeric nano-sized carrier systems have been deve-loped for targeted drug delivery and drug controlled release. In order to improve drug accumulation in the focal lesions and reduce the side effects, smart stimuli-responsive nano-sized carriers have emerged. Now, the polymeric nano-sized drug carriers have shown great potential for cancers, metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. This review focuses on the recent advances in polymeric nano-sized carriers and their applications in biomedicine.

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    Metal-organic Framework Membranes for Efficient Separation of Small Molecules and Ions
    JIANG Xiao-Tian, YIN Qi, LIU Tian-Fu, CAO Rong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (8): 1691-1707.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200261
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    This review summarizes the recent research progress of metal-organic framework(MOF)membrane for the efficient separation of small molecules and ions. Owing to their high crystallinity,designable struc-tures,tunable pore sizes and easy functionality,MOF membranes have attracted great research attention and being considered as excellent candidates for separation technology. Given the tremendous progresses made in recent years,it is timely and worthy to systematically summarize the recent advances and shed light on the future trend in this multidisciplinary field. In this review,four common fabrication methods of MOF mem-branes are firstly summarized,including layer-by-layer assembly(liquid-phase epitaxy and Langmuir-Blodgett deposition),vacuum-based fabrication(chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition),electrochemi-cal deposition and powder MOF-based deposition. Furthermore,three emerging separation applications of MOF membranes are minutely described,including gas separation,liquid separation,and ion/proton conduc-tivity. Finally,a summary proposed some key scientific challenges and the possible solution,showing future perspectives of the development of this filed.
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    Direct Synthesis of SSZ-13 Zeolite Using Tetraethylammonium Hydroxide as an Efficient Organic Template in the Presence of Conventional Aluminum and Silicon Sources
    LUAN Huimin, CHEN Wei, WU Qinming, XU Hao, HAN Shichao, MENG Xiangju, ZHENG Anmin, XIAO Fengshou
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (7): 1470-1476.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200197
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    High silica CHA zeolite(SSZ-13) has been commercially applied in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia currently, but the use of costly organic templates of N,N,N-trimethyl-adamantammonium hydroxide(TMAdaOH) in the synthesis strongly limits its industrial application. To solve this problem, it is developed a synthetic route using relatively low-cost organic templates such as tetraethylammonium hydroxide(TEAOH), but in this case it is necessary to use costly high silica Y zeolite as a starting source. In this report, we for the first time show that SSZ-13 zeolite could be synthesized directly from conventional silicon and aluminum sources using TEAOH as an efficient organic template by carefully adjusting the starting gels in the presence of SSZ-13 seeds. The obtained aluminosilicate SSZ-13 product has good crystallinity, uniform crystals, and excellent hydrothermal stability. Furthermore, copper-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolite has excellent catalytic performance in NH3-SCR reaction before and after hydrothermal treatment. The combination of good catalytic performance with low-cost synthesis offers a good opportunity for wide applications of this zeolite in the future.

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    Progress in Preparation and Gas-sensing Application of Hollow Multi-shell Structured Materials
    SUN Hui, LAI Xiaoyong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 855-871.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190688
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    Advanced gas sensing technology plays a very important role in the safe production and life of modern society, where the keypoint is the design and development of efficient sensing materials. Hollow multi-shell structured materials possess special physical and chemical properties due to their unique structures with both multiple shells and multi spaces and thus great potential in application for gas sensing. The conventional hard template and soft template methods as well as template-free method based on Osterwald ripening or Kirkendall effect have some limitations in the general preparation of hollow multi-shell structured materials and the precise control of the shell structure. The emergence of the sequential template approach greatly broke through the above-mentioned limitations and promoted the rapid development of the field. This paper briefly reviews the development of the preparative method of hollow multi-shell structured materials, introduces their applications in detecting formaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, toluene, nitrogen dioxide and other harmful gases, and analyzes their unique advantages in gas sensing, and finally summarizes and prospects the challenges and prospects.

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    Single-molecule Imaging and Analysis of Signal Transduction Proteins on Cell Membranes
    LIANG Yuxin, ZHAO Rong, LIANG Xinyue, FANG Xiaohong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1127-1138.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190663
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    Membrane proteins play an important role in cell signal transduction. Structural and functional abnormalities of membrane proteins can cause a variety of diseases. The development of single-molecule fluorescence imaging technology has enabled researchers to study the location and dynamic behavior of single membrane proteins in living cell systems, and their interactions with other molecules. Single-molecule fluorescence imaging technology has been widely used to reveal the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction under physiological conditions in recent years. Based on the our research work, this paper introduces the imaging principle, fluorescent labeling method and data analysis method of single-molecule fluorescence imaging in the study of cell membrane proteins, and further reviews the research progress of single-molecule fluorescence imaging on mechanistic study of several important signal transduction membrane proteins and related drug development.

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    Photocatalytic Application of Covalent Organic Frameworks
    LI Li, LI Pengfei, WANG Bo
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (9): 1917-1932.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200409
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    Covalent organic frameworks(COFs) are crystalline porous organic materials, which are built from organic building blocks through covalent bonds. COFs have the characteristics of well-defined pore structure and high specific surface area. COFs have been widely used in gas storage and separation, catalysis, sensing, energy storage, photoelectric conversion and many other fields. Introducing organic building blocks with adjustable light absorption into COFs provide COF with a great potential in photocatalysis. In recent years, COFs have developed rapidly in the field of photocatalysis. This paper summarizes the recent progress of COFs in the fields of photocatalytic hydrogen production, photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction, photocatalytic organic reactions, and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, and looks forward to its further prospects in the field of photocatalysis.

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    A Photoresponsive Azobenzene-functionalized Covalent Organic Framework
    LI Shanshan, ZHAO Wenjuan, LI Hui, FANG Qianrong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1384-1390.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200021
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    Covalent organic frameworks(COFs) with high specific surface area, regular structure, and modi-fiable pore channels, are crystalline porous organic polymers and have been widely used in various fields. Azobenzene derivatives with light isomerization characteristics are important stimulus-responsive materials. Herein we report a method of postsynthetic modification for the preparation of photothermal responsive azobenzene-functionalized COF, denoted as JUC-501(JUC=Jilin University China), which based on introducing small azobenzene molecules into the channels of COF(JUC-500). Under ultraviolet irradiation and heating conditions, the COF with azobenzene in the pores will undergo reversible cis-trans isomerization reaction and exhibits excellent reversible capture and release properties for methyl orange(MO).

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    Visible-light-promoted Dearomatization of Benzene and Derivatives
    ZHU Min, ZHANG Xiao, YOU Shuli
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (7): 1407-1414.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200205
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    Benzene rings are widely found in petrochemicals, which are cheap and readily available. Compared with other (hetero)aromatic rings, the dearomatization of benzene rings is more challenging as benzene is more stable. On the other hand, visible-light photocatalysis has experienced rapid development since last decade. Upon visible-light irradiation, highly active intermediates are formed to break aromatic stability and to construct three-dimensional molecules from flat compounds. In this review, recent examples on visible-light-promoted dearomatization of benzene and derivatives are summarized, which can be divided into two main categories: ground-state chemistry and excited-state chemistry. The perspective for future development of this field is also discussed.

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    Progress of Transition Metal⁃catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation in China
    ZHANG Shuxin, FENG Yu, FAN Qinghua
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (10): 2107-2136.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200515
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    Chiral transition metal complexes-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation is one of the most efficient methods for the synthesis of optically pure compounds including amino acids, alcohols, amines and acids, and has been intensively investigated in the past several decades. This review mainly summarizes the main progress of the transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation achieved by Chinese scientists from two aspects: (1) the design and synthesis of chiral phosphorus ligands and their transition metal catalysts; (2) catalytic asymmetric hydrogenations of new and difficult substrates including functionalized olefins, ketones, imines and heteroaromatic compounds. In addition, the challenges and prospects in the field of asymmetric hydrogenation are briefly discussed.

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    Green Electronic Devices Based on Ionic Liquids
    GAO Naiwei, MA Qiang, HE Yonglin, WANG Yapei
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 901-908.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190634
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    Our group has devoted to using ionic liquids as sensing materials to fabricate green electronic devices. This particular class of sensing liquids possesses intrinsic advantages of excellent recyclability, flexibility, self-healing property, remoldability and reconfigurability. There are still some challenges of synthesizing kinds of liquid electronic materials and fabricating complex integrated circuits. The breakthrough of these problems will broaden the application range of green electronic devices and provide an effective method to exploit multi-function green electronic devices. This review mainly pays attention to the development of electronic devices based on ionic liquids and perdict the enornous potential applications of this devices.

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    Progress of Biomimetic Anisotropic Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Intelligent Response Actuators
    YAN Hao, TANG Ping, LI Shuhong, ZHAO Tianyi, LIU Mingjie
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 936-946.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190636
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    A hydrogel is a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers, which can hold a large amount of water while maintaining the structure. Due to its "soft" and "wet" characteristics, the resemblance to living tissue opens up many opportunities for applications in biomedical areas. However, compared with soft tissues, traditional hydrogels have rather weak mechanical properties due to the uneven cross-linking structures during polymerizations. Also, the mechanical properties of the hydrogels are isotropic, as oppose to most of the soft tissues, which are always anisotropic. Many soft tissues in nature are composed of multi-level anisotropic structures, which give animals the abilities to adapt changes in the harsh environment. Inspired by the anisotropic structure in nature, how to introduce highly ordered structures into hydrogel networks has become a hot research topic in recent years. Among the thermos-responsive polymers, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is the most important one because of transition across the lower critical solubility temperature(LCST). This unique property endows PNIPAM the ability to be used as smart actuators. In this review, several strategies of fabricating anisotropic PNIPAM-based smart actuators are summarized, and the impact of anisotropic structures on their actuating abilities are discussed in detail.

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    Water-soluble Regular Three-dimensional Supramolecular and Covalent Organic Polymers
    ZHANG Danwei, WANG Hui, LI Zhanting
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1139-1150.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190659
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    Recent research advances in the self-assembly of water-soluble three-dimensional supramolecular polymers, supramolecular organic frameworks, metal-supramolecular organic framework hybrids, metal-covalent-supramolecular organic framework hybrids and covalent organic framework and their functions as catalytic and delivering materials are described in this reveiw. The different kinds of supramolecular frameworks have been assembled through the hydrophobically driven encapsulation of cucurbit[8]uril macrocycles for the intermolecular dimers formed by the peripheral aromatic units of preorganized tetratopic or hexatopic components. The water-soluble covalent organic framework was prepared from a supramolecular organic framework template through the quantitative [2+2] cycloaddition of the alkene units incorporated in a tetrahedral component. In the final section, challenges and prospects for the future research in regular three-dimensional polymers are proposed.

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    Application of Elastin-like Polypeptides in Supramolecular Assembly
    HOU Chunxi, LI Yijia, WANG Tingting, LIU Shengda, YAN Tengfei, LIU Junqiu
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1163-1173.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190667
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    Recent research progress of elastin-like polypeptides(ELPs) in temperature-responsive supramolecular structures is summarized systematically. The unique advantages of temperature controlled phase transition of elastin in the construction of supramolecular assembly are discussed and the sequence sensitivity of ELPs nanostructures is also demonstrated. Finally, the application of ELPs in supramolecular assembly in the future is prospected.

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    Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Spinel-type High-entropy Oxides
    XIANG Houzheng, XIE Hongxiang, LI Wenchao, LIU Xiaolei, MAO Aiqin, YU Haiyun
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (8): 1801-1809.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200263
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    The spinel-type high-entropy oxides(HEOs),(Cr0.2Fe0.2Mn0.2Ni0.2M0.2)3O4(M=Co, Zn, and Mg) nanocrystalline powders with chemical homogeneity were synthesized by solution combustion method, and explored for the first time as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The effects of active transition-metal ions Co, Zn and inactive Mg ion on the structural and electrochemical performance were investigated. The results show that all the synthesized anode materials exhibit excellent cycle stability due to the entropy-stabilized crystal structure. The (Cr0.2Fe0.2Mn0.2Ni0.2Mg0.2)3O4 containing inactive Mg ion not only delivers a high initial specific capacity of 1300 mA·h/g at a specific current of 200 mA/g, but also exhibits a good rate capacity of 450 mA·h/g even at 3 A/g. Furthermore, the value of Li+ diffusion coefficient of (Cr0.2Fe0.2Mn0.2Ni0.2Mg0.2)3O4 after 500 cycles is more 3 times than that of the other two high-entropy oxides. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the inactive Mg2+ in the entropy-stabilized (Cr0.2Fe0.2Mn0.2Ni0.2Mg0.2)3O4 anode material, which not only avoids agglomeration of active materials but also increases the Li+ diffusivity during the de/lithiation process.
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    Recent Advances of Catalytic Asymmetric C—B Bond Forming Reactions
    HUANG Mingyao, ZHU Shoufei
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (7): 1426-1448.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200090
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    Organoboron compounds are of particular importance in the fields of synthesis, pharmaceutical and material sciences. With retention of the absolute configuration, a boryl group can be easily transformed into another functional group, which make chiral organoborons versatile reagents in synthetic chemistry. On the other side, chiral organoborons can serve as drugs or bioactive molecules and applied for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Given these functions, methods for the synthesis of chiral organoboron compounds are intensively investigated in the field of organic synthesis. Herein, we reviewed the recent progresses on the catalytic asymmetric C—B bond forming reactions.

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