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    Recent Progress in Functional Nanomaterials Based on Self-assembly Technology
    WANG Jun, WANG Tie
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (3): 377-387.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190643
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    The rapid development of nanoscale self-assembly technology has broadened the application of nanomaterials. The self-assembly provides an effective and promising way to form new nanomaterials. This review introduces the value of nanoscale self-assembly technology and emerging synthesis methods in recent years. It focuses on the types of interactions driving nanoscopic self-assembly, including van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces, magnetic forces, hydrogen bonding, entropy effects, and other interactions(solvophobic interactions, DNA complementary base paring rules, etc.). In addition, the application fields as well as the existing opportunities and challenges of nanoscale self-assembly in developing novel materials are discussed.

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    Organic Small Molecule Nanoparticles for Phototheranostics
    SHAO Wei, LEE Jiyoung, LI Fangyuan, LING Daishun
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (11): 2356-2382.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200319
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    Cancer is a global public health issue that is severely threatening human health. Efficient diagnostic and therapeutic methods are in great demand. Photosensitizer(PS)-enabled phototheranostics that integrate diagnosis and therapy into a single platform under near-infrared(NIR) laser irradiation is superior to conventional surgery resection and chemotherapy in terms of noninvasiveness, minimal harm to normal tissues, and high spatial selectivity. With the merits of defined and easily-tuned chemical structure, good reproducibility, and excellent biocompatibility, organic small molecule dyes are promising PSs in phototheranostics as compared to their inorganic and polymeric counterparts. We herein summarize the recent advances of organic small molecules, including conventional small molecule dyes, donor-acceptor(D-A) conjugated small molecules, and aggregation-induced emission molecules(AIEgens), organic small molecule nanoparticles(OSMNs) in phototheranostics. The future challenges and perspectives of OSMNs in phototheranostics are also discussed.

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    Research Progress of Photoelectrochemical Technology Applied in Antioxidant Analysis
    HAN Fangjie, DAI Mengjiao, LIANG Zhishan, SONG Zhongqian, HAN Dongxue, NIU Li
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (4): 591-603.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190651
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    In the process of metabolism, the body will produce a large number of oxidation active substances with free radicals as the main formation, and antioxidants can capture and neutralize free radicals in the form of electron transfer, so as to protect the cell from damage, prevent and retard the oxidative deterioration of food. Therefore, it is of great significance for the determination and evaluation of antioxidants capacitance in foods. As a low-cost, simple, quick and sensitive method, photoelectrochemical(PEC) technology can overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, such as optical method, chromatographic method and electrochemical method. The design of photocatalysis materials is the key of the PEC platform. The review concludes with the progress of the photoelectrochemical platform based on semiconductor materials applied in the analysis of antioxidant capacity in food and the characteristics of various detection systems. In addition, the future research directions are also proposed.

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    Advances in Bacterial Detection Based on Raman Spectroscopy
    LI Wenshuai, WU Guorui, ZHANG Xijing, YUE Aiqin, DU Weijun, ZHAO Jinzhong, LIU Dingbin
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 872-883.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190684
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    Bacteria is a kind of microorganism that is closely related to human activities, and its rapid and highly sensitive detection is very important for the prevention and control of major infectious diseases. In this paper, the basic principle of Raman spectroscopy for bacterial detection is introduced, and three main methods of Raman spectroscopy for bacterial detection, including bacterial composition detection, bacterial metabolites detection and Raman probe labeling based detection mode, are reviewed and compared. Finally, the development prospect of Raman spectroscopy in the field of bacterial detection was prospected, and five suggestions were put forward.

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    Metal-organic Framework Membranes for Efficient Separation of Small Molecules and Ions
    JIANG Xiao-Tian, YIN Qi, LIU Tian-Fu, CAO Rong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (8): 1691-1707.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200261
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    This review summarizes the recent research progress of metal-organic framework(MOF)membrane for the efficient separation of small molecules and ions. Owing to their high crystallinity,designable struc-tures,tunable pore sizes and easy functionality,MOF membranes have attracted great research attention and being considered as excellent candidates for separation technology. Given the tremendous progresses made in recent years,it is timely and worthy to systematically summarize the recent advances and shed light on the future trend in this multidisciplinary field. In this review,four common fabrication methods of MOF mem-branes are firstly summarized,including layer-by-layer assembly(liquid-phase epitaxy and Langmuir-Blodgett deposition),vacuum-based fabrication(chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition),electrochemi-cal deposition and powder MOF-based deposition. Furthermore,three emerging separation applications of MOF membranes are minutely described,including gas separation,liquid separation,and ion/proton conduc-tivity. Finally,a summary proposed some key scientific challenges and the possible solution,showing future perspectives of the development of this filed.
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    Recent Advances on High Mobility Emissive Anthracene-derived Organic Semiconductors
    XIE Ziyi, LIU Dan, ZHANG Yihan, LIU Qingqing, DONG Huanli, HU Wenping
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1179-1193.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190650
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    High mobility emissive organic semiconductors are the important core materials for the realization of organic light-emitting transistors(OLETs). However, it remains a long-standing challenge for developing high mobility emissive organic semiconductors because of the different molecular design requirements as well as their molecular packing in solid state. Recently, significant advance has been achieved in the development of high mobility emissive organic semiconductors, especially for the anthracene-derived high mobility emissive materials, which would lead to the rapid development of this field. In this article, we first give a brief introduction for the significant progress in the whole field, and then focus on special development of high mobility emissive anthracene-derivatives(more than 20 types) along with their molecular structure design, molecular packing and optoelectronic properties as well as their applications in OLETs. Finally, the challenges, development directions and opportunities are discussed. Hopefully, this review would give a valuable guideline for the further research in this field.

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    One-step Synergistic Hydrophobic Modification of Melamine Sponge and Its Application
    LIU Shuaizhuo,ZHANG Qian,LIU Ning,XIAO Wenyan,FAN Leiyi,ZHOU Ying
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (3): 521-529.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190557
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    The amphiphilic melamine sponge(MS) was synergistically modified in one step by nitric acid(HNO3). Thus, the HNO3 modified melamine sponge(HMMS) with superhydrophobicity was prepared. The structure, morphology and composition of the prepared HMMS were analyzed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy(FTIR), thermogravimetry(TG) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). And its surface wettability, mechanical properties, adsorption properties, recycling performance and oil-water separation perfor-mance were studied. The results show that the HMMS has superhydrophobicity, excellent mechanical properties, recycling ability and selective adsorption capacity, and exhibits high separation efficiency up to 6×10 6 L?m -3?h -1. Particularly, HMMS can remain stable in physicochemical properties in demanding environments. Therefore, the novel oil-water separation material have high practical application value.

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    Recent Advances in Polymeric Nano-sized Carrier Systems
    ZHAO Yu, CAO Wanqing, LIU Yang
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 909-923.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190646
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    In recent years, the nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention in biomedicine owing to the great enhancement of therapeutic efficiency. A variety of polymeric nano-sized carrier systems have been deve-loped for targeted drug delivery and drug controlled release. In order to improve drug accumulation in the focal lesions and reduce the side effects, smart stimuli-responsive nano-sized carriers have emerged. Now, the polymeric nano-sized drug carriers have shown great potential for cancers, metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. This review focuses on the recent advances in polymeric nano-sized carriers and their applications in biomedicine.

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    Preparation and Applications of Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels
    SHENG Hui, XUE Bin, QIN Meng, WANG Wei, CAO Yi
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1194-1207.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190656
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    In this review, we focus on the design principle of stretchable and tough hydrogels as well as the applications in the fields of tissue engineering and flexible electronic devices. Through connecting hydrogel network structures, toughening mechanisms and chemical structures with macroscopic mechanical properties, we mainly discussed the research progress of single network hydrogel, double network hydrogel, nanocomposite hydrogel and so on. The summary and outlook of the new ideas and directions of stretchable and tough hydrogels were also demonstrated at last.

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    Progress in Preparation and Gas-sensing Application of Hollow Multi-shell Structured Materials
    SUN Hui, LAI Xiaoyong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (5): 855-871.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190688
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    Advanced gas sensing technology plays a very important role in the safe production and life of modern society, where the keypoint is the design and development of efficient sensing materials. Hollow multi-shell structured materials possess special physical and chemical properties due to their unique structures with both multiple shells and multi spaces and thus great potential in application for gas sensing. The conventional hard template and soft template methods as well as template-free method based on Osterwald ripening or Kirkendall effect have some limitations in the general preparation of hollow multi-shell structured materials and the precise control of the shell structure. The emergence of the sequential template approach greatly broke through the above-mentioned limitations and promoted the rapid development of the field. This paper briefly reviews the development of the preparative method of hollow multi-shell structured materials, introduces their applications in detecting formaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, toluene, nitrogen dioxide and other harmful gases, and analyzes their unique advantages in gas sensing, and finally summarizes and prospects the challenges and prospects.

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    Research Progress of Photo-driven C1 Conversion to Value-added Chemicals
    LI Zhenhua, SHI Run, ZHAO Jiaqi, ZHANG Tierui
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (4): 604-615.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190641
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    We summarized recent progresses of photo-driven C1 chemistry. Latest researches on photo-driven Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Water-Gas shift, carbon dioxide hydrogenation, methane reforming, and methanol reforming for hydrogen production were systematically reviewed. In addition, the existing problems as well as prospects were also proposed in the research field.

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    Detection of Cocaine Based on the System of AIEgen, Aptamer and Exonuclease Ⅰ
    DU Xianchao, HAO Hongxia, QIN Anjun, TANG Benzhong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (3): 411-416.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190681
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    A new system for detection of cocaine was designed based on an AIEgen of TPE-TTA, anticocaine aptamer and exonuclease Ⅰ(Exo Ⅰ) . The Exo Ⅰ can specifically cleave the phosphodiester bonds of nucleotides in nucleic acids either from the ends or interior of single stranded DNA(ssDNA). Meanwhile, the cocaine can combine with anticocaine aptamer and switch its configuration to Y-shaped double stranded DNAs(dsDNA) that prevent the aptamer degradation in the presence of Exo Ⅰ. When cationic 4,4',4″,4″'-{[ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayltetrakis(benzene-4,1-diyl)]tetrakis(oxy)}-tetrakis(N,N,N-triethylbutan-1-aminium) bromide(TPE-TTA) was added to the Tris-HCl solution, it can combine with aptamer and the fluore-scence was turned on. The experiment conditions, including the amount of Exo Ⅰ, incubation time of the Exo Ⅰ with anticocaine aptamer, incubation temperature and time of anticocaine aptamer with cocaine were systematically investigated and the optimal conditions were obtained. With different concentrations of cocaine, the experimental results showed that the fluorescence intensity was progressively enhanced. The limit of detection(LOD) of 0.66 μmol/L was deduced. Moreover, the developed method also was used to determine cocaine in real urine samples, and the LOD can reach as low as 1.0 μmol/L. This work provides a new method for cocaine detection, which is promising for practical application.

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    Two-photon Excitable Photosensitizers with Aggregation-induced Emission and Their Biomedical Applications
    WU Wenbo,LIU Bin
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (2): 191-203.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190614
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    The concept of two-photon excited photodynamic therapy based on photosensitizers with aggregation-induced emission(AIE) takes advantages of high penetration depth and precision from two-photon technology, and high photosensitization efficiency in aggregate state from AIE photosensitizers. In this contribution, we review the recent progress in this field, which includes the design principles of two-photon excitable AIE photosensitizers, specific examples of AIE photosensitizers and their biomedical applications. The perspectives for the future development of this field was also discussed.

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    Molecular-fence Catalysts for Low-temperature Oxidation of Methane to Methanol
    SHEN Wenjie
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (3): 375-376.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200056
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    Selective oxidation of methane to methanol often suffers from the low reaction efficiency. Based on the concept of molecular fence effect, Xiao and co-workers reported a heterogeneous catalyst system for strengthening methane oxidation by the in-situ generated hydrogen peroxide at mild temperatures. They achieved a 17.3% conversion of methane and 92% selectivity toward methanol, giving a methanol productivity of 91.6 millimoles per gram of AuPd per hour. This work has been published online in Science in Jan.10, 2020.

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    Single-molecule Imaging and Analysis of Signal Transduction Proteins on Cell Membranes
    LIANG Yuxin, ZHAO Rong, LIANG Xinyue, FANG Xiaohong
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (6): 1127-1138.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190663
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    Membrane proteins play an important role in cell signal transduction. Structural and functional abnormalities of membrane proteins can cause a variety of diseases. The development of single-molecule fluorescence imaging technology has enabled researchers to study the location and dynamic behavior of single membrane proteins in living cell systems, and their interactions with other molecules. Single-molecule fluorescence imaging technology has been widely used to reveal the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction under physiological conditions in recent years. Based on the our research work, this paper introduces the imaging principle, fluorescent labeling method and data analysis method of single-molecule fluorescence imaging in the study of cell membrane proteins, and further reviews the research progress of single-molecule fluorescence imaging on mechanistic study of several important signal transduction membrane proteins and related drug development.

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    Solid-state NMR Spectroscopy Studies on Structure, Dynamics and Host-guest Interaction in Metal-organic Framework Materials
    XIAO Yuqing,LI Shenhui,TANG Jing,XU Jun,DENG Feng
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (2): 204-220.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190620
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    In this review, the applications of versatile and state-of-the-art solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) to investigate the structure, dynamics and host-guest interaction in metal-organic frameworks(MOFs) were introduced. Multi-nuclear and multi-dimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical environment and coordination state of metal clusters and organic linkers in MOFs. The molecular flexibility and dynamic behavior of the linkers in MOFs could be deduced from variable temperature solid-state NMR. Moreover, the host-guest interaction model between methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, common chemicals and MOFs could be established on the basis of solid-state NMR observation. The application of solid-state NMR to MOFs would provide insights into understanding their structure-property relationship and facilitate the rational design of new functional MOFs.

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    Direct Synthesis of SSZ-13 Zeolite Using Tetraethylammonium Hydroxide as an Efficient Organic Template in the Presence of Conventional Aluminum and Silicon Sources
    LUAN Huimin, CHEN Wei, WU Qinming, XU Hao, HAN Shichao, MENG Xiangju, ZHENG Anmin, XIAO Fengshou
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (7): 1470-1476.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200197
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    High silica CHA zeolite(SSZ-13) has been commercially applied in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia currently, but the use of costly organic templates of N,N,N-trimethyl-adamantammonium hydroxide(TMAdaOH) in the synthesis strongly limits its industrial application. To solve this problem, it is developed a synthetic route using relatively low-cost organic templates such as tetraethylammonium hydroxide(TEAOH), but in this case it is necessary to use costly high silica Y zeolite as a starting source. In this report, we for the first time show that SSZ-13 zeolite could be synthesized directly from conventional silicon and aluminum sources using TEAOH as an efficient organic template by carefully adjusting the starting gels in the presence of SSZ-13 seeds. The obtained aluminosilicate SSZ-13 product has good crystallinity, uniform crystals, and excellent hydrothermal stability. Furthermore, copper-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolite has excellent catalytic performance in NH3-SCR reaction before and after hydrothermal treatment. The combination of good catalytic performance with low-cost synthesis offers a good opportunity for wide applications of this zeolite in the future.

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    Visible-light-promoted Dearomatization of Benzene and Derivatives
    ZHU Min, ZHANG Xiao, YOU Shuli
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (7): 1407-1414.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20200205
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    Benzene rings are widely found in petrochemicals, which are cheap and readily available. Compared with other (hetero)aromatic rings, the dearomatization of benzene rings is more challenging as benzene is more stable. On the other hand, visible-light photocatalysis has experienced rapid development since last decade. Upon visible-light irradiation, highly active intermediates are formed to break aromatic stability and to construct three-dimensional molecules from flat compounds. In this review, recent examples on visible-light-promoted dearomatization of benzene and derivatives are summarized, which can be divided into two main categories: ground-state chemistry and excited-state chemistry. The perspective for future development of this field is also discussed.

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    Controllable Preparation of Polydopamine Modified Gold Nanoflowers and Its Application in Photothermal Therapy
    WU Fengren,LIU Yongjia,LU Xuemin,ZHU Bangshang
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (3): 465-472.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190488
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    Gold nanoflowers(AuNFs) were prepared through template-free method. The size and morphology of AuNFs were modulated by reaction temperature and the amount of reducing agent ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polydopamine(PDA) modification was adopt to improve the near-infrared(NIR) absorbance and biocompatibility of AuNFs. The size, morphology and optical properties of AuNFs and PDA modified AuNFs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), dynamic light scattering(DLS) & Zeta potential analyzer and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The modification of PDA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis indicated that the crystal structure of AuNFs had no changes after PDA modification. The cytotoxicity of samples in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay. The results demonstrated that the lower temperature(0 ℃) is the proper reaction temperature to obtain the multi-branched structures of AuNFs. Meanwhile, increasing the concentration of reducing agent ascorbic acid would obtain the smaller AuNFs. The size of AuNFs ranged from 60—100 nm, and the wavelength of UV-Vis absorption peak was 575—650 nm. After PDA modification, the significantly red-shifted(over 80 nm) of UV-Vis absorption was found, and the absorption range in the near infrared region was significantly improved. The thickness of PDA layer outside AuNFs was about 8—14 nm through PDA concentration changes. Under 808 nm laser irradiation, the solution with PDA-AuNFs were rapidly heated to 57 ℃. In addition, the cell viability in vitro demonstrated that the PDA-AuNFs had lower cytotoxicity. After photothermal treatment with PDA-AuNFs, the cell survival of HeLa cells was about 10%. Therefore, the PDA-AuNFs had potential applications as photothermal reagents for tumor therapy.

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    Preparative Chemistry of N-containing Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Capacity Improvement in Lithium-sulfur Battery
    WANG Xia, LIU Yanji, JIA Yongfeng, JI Lei, HU Quanli, DUAN Limei, LIU Jinghai
    Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities    2020, 41 (4): 829-837.   DOI: 10.7503/cjcu20190549
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    Mesoporous nitrogen-containing carbon nanofibers(MT-C) were prepared via carbonization of polyacrylonitrile(PAN) nanofibers at 1000 ℃ in a nitrogen atmosphere with polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) acting as pore-making agent. Under condition of m(PVP)/m(PAN)=2∶1, MT-C-0.4 with the largest specific surface area of 190.8 m 2/g exhibits the initial discharge specific capacity of 1269.4 mA·h/g at 0.05C. After 300 cycles at 0.5C, the specific capacity maintains at 658.3 mA·h/g with a capacity decay rate of 0.14% per cycle. In addition, when the sulfur areal loading amount is 1 mg/cm 2, the MT-C-0.4/S presents the best electrochemical performances.

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