The hydrolysis/condensation of orthosilicate is the most commonly used chemical method for the preparation of silica materials. During the sol-gel reaction， the addition of mesoporous-directing agent（i.e.， usually a surfactant） results in silica materials with a mesoporous structure. By adjusting the hydrolysis/condensation process in a multiphase interface， different mesoporous nanomicrostructures are constructed. This provides new opportunities for expanding their application fields and enriches the understanding of the sol-gel method. This paper systematically introduces the latest research progress in the sol-gel construction of mesoporous silica nanomicrostructures， including application prospects in biomedicine， catalysis， adsorption separation， and summarizes the problems faced in the fields and the future development direction.