高等学校化学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (11): 2306-2323.doi: 10.7503/cjcu20200408

• 庆祝《高等学校化学学报》复刊40周年专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

外泌体生物分析及其临床应用研究进展

张怡萌,张慧欣,刘洋   

  1. 1.清华大学化学系, 微量分析测试方法与仪器研制北京市重点实验室, 生物有机磷化学及化学生物学教育部重点实验室, 北京 100084
    2.青岛大学化学化工学院, 山东省中日碳纳米材料合作研究中心, 青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-30 出版日期:2020-11-10 发布日期:2020-11-06
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0203101);国家自然科学基金(批准号(21874080);21622506, 21621003)资助

Recent Advances of Exosomes Bioanalysis and Their Clinic Applications

ZHANG Yimeng1, ZHANG Huixin1,2, LIU Yang1()   

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry,Beijing Key Laboratory for Analytical Methods and Instrumentation,Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education,Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084,China
    2.Shandong Sino?Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials,College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Qingdao University,Qingdao 266071,China
  • Received:2020-06-30 Online:2020-11-10 Published:2020-11-06
  • Contact: LIU Yang E-mail:liu-yang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFA0203101);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21874080)

摘要:

外泌体是具有各种关键生物活性分子(如脂质、 蛋白质和核酸)的细胞外囊泡. 它们可以由所有类型的细胞分泌, 并分布在所有生物流体中, 如血液、 唾液、 汗水和尿液等. 更重要的是, 外泌体可以参与多种生理活动, 包括细胞间通讯、 哺乳动物的繁殖和免疫反应, 并在新陈代谢以及心血管疾病、 神经变性和癌症等疾病的病理进展中起重要作用, 这使其成为备受关注的天然非侵入性生物标记物, 并且被认为是可用于临床诊断和治疗的潜在工具。本文综述了用于检测外泌体的生物传感器的最新发展, 包括荧光、 电化学、 电化学发光、 表面增强拉曼光谱、 比色法和微流控技术等分析方法; 总结了在临床诊断和疾病治疗中外泌体的临床应用; 还讨论了外泌体检测所面临的挑战以及外泌体在临床诊断和疾病治疗等方面的应用潜力.

关键词: 外泌体, 生物传感器, 定量分析, 临床应用

Abstract:

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with various pivotal bioactive molecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all types of cells and distributed in all biofluids, e.g. blood, saliva, sweat and urine. More importantly, the exosomes participate in multiple physiological activities including intercellular communication, mammalian reproduction and immune responses, and play the important role in the pathological progression including the metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration and cancer, which make them the attractive natural non-invasive biomarkers, and are considered to be potential tools for the clinical diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of biosensors for the detection of exosomes including series of methods such as fluorescence, electrochemistry, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, surface enhanced Raman spectra, colorimetry and microfluidic analysis. In addition, the clinic applications of exosomes were also described on the clinic diagnostic and diseases therapies. Finally, the challenges on the exosomes analysis as well as the potential researches on the clinic diagnostics and diseases therapies in the future were also discussed.

Key words: Exosomes, Biosensor, Quantitative analysis, Clinical application

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