高等学校化学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 18-23.doi: 10.7503/cjcu20180474

• 无机化学 • 上一篇    下一篇

温度对碳球形貌及超级电容性能的影响

刘浩1, 赵丁选2(), 巩国栋3, 张祝新2, 贾拓1, 陈瀚喆1   

  1. 1. 吉林大学机械与航空航天工程学院, 长春 130025
    2. 燕山大学机械工程学院, 秦皇岛 066004
    3. 吉林大学物理学院, 长春 130012
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-29 出版日期:2019-01-10 发布日期:2018-12-18
  • 作者简介:

    联系人简介: 赵丁选, 男, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事混合动力工程机械方面的研究. E-mail: zdx-yw@ysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家“八六三”计划项目(批准号: 2009AA044403)资助.

Effect of Temperature on Morphology and Supercapacitor Performance of Carbon Nano-spheres

LIU Hao1, ZHAO Dingxuan2,*(), GONG Guodong3, ZHANG Zhuxin2, JIA Tuo1, CHEN Hanzhe1   

  1. 1. School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025, China
    2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
    3. Collage of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
  • Received:2018-06-29 Online:2019-01-10 Published:2018-12-18
  • Contact: ZHAO Dingxuan E-mail:zdx-yw@ysu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    † Supported by the National High-Tech Research Development Plan, China(No.2009AA044403)

摘要:

以三氯乙烷和二氯乙烷为原料, 金属钠为还原剂, 在溶剂热条件(100~150 ℃)下使氯代乙烷中的碳氯键和碳氢键发生断裂制备了碳纳米球, 并对制备的碳纳米球进行了表征. X射线衍射结果表明, 样品为类石墨结构, 衍射信号宽且弱, 表明样品的结晶性较差; 拉曼光谱分析结果也表明样品具有较高的无序度. 样品的SEM与TEM分析结果表明, 在较高的反应温度下, 碳球具有更好的单分散性, 碳球的粒径随温度的升高而增大; 选区电子衍射结果表明碳球内部为无定形的类石墨结构. 以碳纳米球为负极材料的锂离子电池测试结果表明, 50周循环后比容量为941 mA·h/g, 库仑效率接近100%, 放电容量保持率为103.7%, 具有良好的循环稳定性. 测试了不同温度下制备样品的超级电容器性能, 发现120 ℃下制备的碳纳米球具有较高的比电容和较低的内阻值, 比电容高达130 F/g, 经过1000周循环充放电后比电容衰减比例低于14%, 具有较高的稳定性.

关键词: 溶剂热法, 碳纳米球, 单分散性, 超级电容器

Abstract:

Abstract Sodium was used as reductant to break the C—Cl bond and C—H bond in the solvent, trichloroethane(C2H3Cl3) and dichloroethane(C2H4Cl2), under solvothermal condition(100—150 ℃) to prepare carbon nano-spheres(CNSs). The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the sample has a graphite-like structure. The diffraction signal of the sample is wide and weak, indicating that the sample has a poor crystallinity and an amorphous structure. The Raman spectra shows that the sample has a relative high degree of disorder. The results of SEM and TEM show that the CNSs have better monodispersion at higher reaction temperatures. The particle size of the CNSs increases with increasing temperature, and the results of electron diffraction in the selected area indicate that the CNSs are internally amorphous graphite structure. The results of the lithium-ion battery test using the CNSs as the negative electrode material show that the specific capacity after 50 cycles is 941 mA·h/g, and the Coulomb efficiency is close to 100%, the discharge capacity retention rate is 103.7%, indicating that the CNSs have good cycle stability. The performance of CNSs prepared at different temperatures as supercapacitor material was tested. The CNSs prepared under 120 ℃ show higher specific capacitance and lower internal resistance. The specific capacitance is up to 130 F/g. The attenuation of specific capacitance is less than 14% after 1000 cycles, which shows higher stability.

Key words: Solvothermal method, Carbon nano-sphere, Monodispersity, Supercapacitor

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