高等学校化学学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (6): 1065-1071.

• 综合评述 • 上一篇    下一篇

仿生学与天然蜘蛛丝仿生材料

刘全勇1, 江雷1, 2   

  1. 1. 北京航空航天大学化学与环境学院, 北京 100191;
    2. 中国科学院化学研究所北京国家实验室分子科学中心, 北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-04 出版日期:2010-06-10 发布日期:2010-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 江雷, 男, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国科学院院士, 主要从事仿生智能纳米界面材料领域的研究. E-mail: jianglei@iccas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家“九七三”计划项目(批准号: 2010CB934700, 2009CB930404, 2007CB936403)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 20920102036, 20974113)资助.

Bionics and Biomimetic Materials Bioinspired by Natural Spider Silks

LIU Quan-Yong1, JIANG Lei1,2*   

  1. 1. School of Chemistry and Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China;
    2. Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences(MNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2010-01-04 Online:2010-06-10 Published:2010-06-10
  • Contact: JIANG Lei. E-mail: jianglei@iccas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:

    国家“九七三”计划项目(批准号: 2010CB934700, 2009CB930404, 2007CB936403)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 20920102036, 20974113)资助.

摘要: 采用仿生学原理, 设计、合成并制备新型仿生材料是近年来快速发展的研究领域. 天然蜘蛛丝是一种生物蛋白弹性体纤维, 具有高比强度(约为钢铁的5倍)、优异弹性(约为芳纶的10倍)和坚韧性(断裂能为所有纤维中最高), 为自然界产生最好的结构和功能材料之一, 它在航空航天、军事、建筑及医学等领域表现出广阔应用前景. 受自然界蜘蛛丝启发, 天然蜘蛛丝仿生材料的研究迎来了机遇, 同时也给人们展示了许多新颖的仿生设计方法. 本文从不同仿生学角度综述了天然蜘蛛丝仿生材料的发展, 并提出了一些看法和思考.

关键词: 仿生学, 仿生材料, 天然蜘蛛丝, 弹性体纤维, 仿生设计

Abstract: Learning from the nature and being bioinspired, we can design, synthesize and prepare novel biomimetic materials based on bionics, which has been developing rapidly in the latest years. Natural spider silk is a kind of natural biologic protein elastomeric fiber, which presents high specific strength(5 times than that of steel), excellent elasticity(10 times than that of Kevlar 49) and toughness(the highest fracture energy in fibers). It is one of the best structural and functional materials made by the nature, and has great potential applications in the fields of aviation and spaceflight, military, building, biomedicine etc. Recently, the studies on spider silk inspired biomimetic materials have met a chance, and many original methods of bioinspired design have been shown. This paper reviews the development of biomimetic materials bioinspired by natural spider silks from different bionics angles, and some opinions and ideas are put forward.

Key words: Bionics, Biomimetic material, Natural spider silk, Elastomeric fiber, Bioinspired design